Subject Index: English Civil War

Subject Index: English Civil War


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Subject Index: English Civil War


Wars and Treaties

Berwick, Peace of (18 June 1639)
Bishop's War, First (1639)
Bishop's War, Second (1640)
English Civil War, first (1642-6)
English Civil War, Second (1648)
Ripon, Treaty of (26 October 1640)


Battles

Adwalton Moor, battle of. 1643
Alford, battle of, 2 July 1645 (Scotland)
Alton, battle of, 13 December 1643
Basing House, siege of, to 14 October 1645
Benburb, battle of, 5 June 1646 (Ireland)
Braddock Down, battle of, 19 January 1643
Colby Moor, battle of, 1 August 1645
Edgehill, battle of, 23 October 1642
Gloucester, siege of, 10 August-5 September 1643
Higham, battle of, 24 March 1643
Langport, battle of, 10 July 1645
Latham House, siege of, 28 February-May 1644
Laugharne castle, siege of, 29 October-3 November 1644
Leicester, battle of, 31 May 1645 (England)
Marston Moor, battle of, 2 July 1644
Montgomery, battle of, 17 September 1644
Naseby, battle of (14 June 1645)
Newburn upon Tyne, battle of, 28 August 1640
Newbury, first battle of, 20 September 1643)
Philiphaugh, battle of, 13 September 1645 (Scotland)
Rowton Heath, battle of, 24 September 1645
St. Fagan's, battle of, 8 May 1648
Stow on the Wold, battle of, 21 March 1646
Tippermuir, battle of, 1 September 1644
Winceby, battle of, 11 October 1643


Biographies

Astley, Jacob, Lord (1579-1652)
Baillie, William, Scottish general
Batten, Admiral Sir William (d.1667)
Charles I, 1600-1649, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1625-1649)
Cromwell, Oliver, 1599-1658, Lord Protector
Fairfax, Thomas, Third Baron Fairfax (1612-1671)
Grenvile, Sir Bevil, 1596-1643, Royalist General
Langdale, Marmaduke, first Baron Langdale (?1598-1661)
Laugharne, Rowland
Manchester, Edward Montagu, second earl of (1602-1671)
Maurice, Prince (1620-1652)
Montrose, James Graham, 1st Marquess of (1612-1650)
Morgan, Thomas, Sir (d.1679
Newcastle, William Cavendish, duke of, 1592-1676
Rupert, Prince, count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria, duke of Cumberland, earl of Holderness (1619-1682)
Skippon, Philip, Parliamentary general
Verney, Edmund, Sir (1590-1642)
Waller, William, Sir (1597-1668)


Weapons, Armies & Units

Ironsides (England)
New Model Army (England)


Concepts

Long Parliament, 3 November 1640-1660
Parliament, Long, 3 November 1640-1660
Parliament, Short, 13 April-5 May 1640
Ship Money (1634-1639)
Short Parliament, 13 April-5 May 1640



Subject Index

Hepburn, A. Barton 1846-1922. A history of currency in the United States with new chapters on the monetary and financial developments in the United States from 1914 to 1922 and a preface by Mrs. Hepburn on the author's relation to the establishment of the Federal reserve system, (Rev. ed.) New York : The Macmillan company, 1924. xxiv p., 573 p. 23 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Pecquet, Gary M. "The Change Shortage and the Private and Public Provision of Small Currency Denominations in the Trans-Mississippi States 1861-1865." Southern Studies 1986 25(1): 102-110.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Hepburn, A. Barton 1846-1922. A history of currency in the United States with new chapters on the monetary and financial developments in the United States from 1914 to 1922 and a preface by Mrs. Hepburn on the author's relation to the establishment of the Federal reserve system, (Rev. ed.) New York : The Macmillan company, 1924. xxiv p., 573 p. 23 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Dwinell, Olive Cushing. The story of our money : or, Our currency and credit--its sources, creators, control, and regulation of volume and value as set forth in quotations from great American historic figures and state papers, writings, letters, historians, Congressional records, Supreme court decisions and authorities / by Olive Cushing Dwinell. Boston : Meador publishing company, [1946] 208 p. 21 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Hepburn, A. Barton 1846-1922. A history of currency in the United States with new chapters on the monetary and financial developments in the United States from 1914 to 1922 and a preface by Mrs. Hepburn on the author's relation to the establishment of the Federal reserve system, (Rev. ed.) New York : The Macmillan company, 1924. xxiv p., 573 p. 23 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

--. "Money, Money, Money: Gallery." Civil War Times Illustrated 1982 21(8): 36-39.

Howard, Milo B. "Alabama State Currency, 1861-1865." Alabama Historical Quarterly 1963 25(1/2): 70-98.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Lerner, Eugene M. "Money, Prices, and Wages in the Confederacy." Journal of Political Economy 1955 63(1): 20-40.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Morgan, James F., 1945-. Graybacks and gold : Confederate monetary policy / by James F. Morgan. Pensacola, Fla. : Perdido Bay Press, 1985. xii, 161 p., [40] p. of plates : ill., maps 24 cm. Series title: Southern history and genealogy series v. 2.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Morgan, James F. and Charles P. Wilson. "New Orleans and Confederate Louisiana's Monetary Policy: The Confederate Microcosm." Gulf Coast Historical Review 1989 4(2): 73-84.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Pecquet, Gary M. "The Change Shortage and the Private and Public Provision of Small Currency Denominations in the Trans-Mississippi States 1861-1865." Southern Studies 1986 25(1): 102-110.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Pecquet, Gary M. "Money in the Trans-Mississippi Confederacy and the Currency Reform Act of 1864." Explorations in Economic History 1987 24(2): 218-243.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Pecquet, Gary M. "Public Finance in Confederate Louisiana." Louisiana History 1988 29(3): 253-297.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Pecquet, Gary M. "State Finance in Arkansas, 1860-1865." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 1989 48(1): 65-72.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Reinfeld, Fred, 1910-1964. The story of Civil War money. New York : Sterling Pub. Co., [1959] 93 p. : ill. 26 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

--. "Money, Money, Money: Gallery." Civil War Times Illustrated 1982 21(8): 36-39.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Reinfeld, Fred, 1910-1964. The story of Civil War money. New York : Sterling Pub. Co., [1959] 93 p. : ill. 26 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

--. "Money, Money, Money: Gallery." Civil War Times Illustrated 1982 21(8): 36-39.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Dwinell, Olive Cushing. The story of our money : or, Our currency and credit--its sources, creators, control, and regulation of volume and value as set forth in quotations from great American historic figures and state papers, writings, letters, historians, Congressional records, Supreme court decisions and authorities / by Olive Cushing Dwinell. Boston : Meador publishing company, [1946] 208 p. 21 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Hammond, Bray. "The North's Empty Purse." American Historical Review 1961 67(1): 1-18.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Hepburn, A. Barton 1846-1922. A history of currency in the United States with new chapters on the monetary and financial developments in the United States from 1914 to 1922 and a preface by Mrs. Hepburn on the author's relation to the establishment of the Federal reserve system, (Rev. ed.) New York : The Macmillan company, 1924. xxiv p., 573 p. 23 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Jones, Walter B. "Alabama Obsolete Currency." Alabama Review 1977 30(1):213-226.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Muhleman, Maurice Louis, 1852-1913. The money of the United States : Its character and legal status from 1793 to 1893 and its volume from 1873 to 1893 . / by Maurice L. Muhleman. New York : The Safety valve, 1894. 72 p. : tables 19 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Nussbaum, Arthur, 1877-1964. A history of the dollar. New York : Columbia University Press, 1957. 308 p. 21 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

--. "Money, Money, Money: Gallery." Civil War Times Illustrated 1982 21(8): 36-39.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Chase, Philip Hartley, 1886-. Confederate Treasury notes : the paper money of the Confederate States of America, 1861-1865. Philadelphia, 1947. 148 p. : ill. 24 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Criswell, Grover C.. Confederate and southern state currency : a descriptive listing, including rarity / by Grover C. Criswell, Jr. [and] Clarence L. Criswell. Pass-A-Grille Beach, Fla. : Criswell's, 1957. 277 p. : ill. 26 cm. Series title: Criswell's currency series, v. 1
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Howard, Milo B. "Alabama State Currency, 1861-1865." Alabama Historical Quarterly 1963 25(1/2): 70-98.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Lerner, Eugene M. "Money, Prices, and Wages in the Confederacy." Journal of Political Economy 1955 63(1): 20-40.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Morgan, James F. and Charles P. Wilson. "New Orleans and Confederate Louisiana's Monetary Policy: The Confederate Microcosm." Gulf Coast Historical Review 1989 4(2): 73-84.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Pecquet, Gary M. "The Change Shortage and the Private and Public Provision of Small Currency Denominations in the Trans-Mississippi States 1861-1865." Southern Studies 1986 25(1): 102-110.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Slabaugh, Arlie R.. Confederate States paper money : a type catalog of the paper money issued by the Confederate States during the Civil War, 1861-1865. Centennial ed. Racine, Wis. : Whitman Pub. Co., [1961] 64 p. : ill. 20 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Hammond, Bray. "The North's Empty Purse." American Historical Review 1961 67(1): 1-18.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Krause, Chester L.. Standard catalog of U.S. paper money / by Chester L. Krause and Robert F. Lemke pricing editor, Robert E. Wilhite special consultants, Frederick J. Bart . [et al.] 5th ed. Iola, WI : Krause Publications, c1986. 186 p. : ill. 28 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

--. "Money, Money, Money: Gallery." Civil War Times Illustrated 1982 21(8): 36-39.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Hammond, Bray. "The North's Empty Purse." American Historical Review 1961 67(1): 1-18.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Howard, Milo B. "Alabama State Currency, 1861-1865." Alabama Historical Quarterly 1963 25(1/2): 70-98.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Jones, Walter B. "Alabama Obsolete Currency." Alabama Review 1977 30(1):213-226.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Lerner, Eugene M. "Money, Prices, and Wages in the Confederacy." Journal of Political Economy 1955 63(1): 20-40. Morgan, James F., 1945-. Graybacks and gold : Confederate monetary policy / by James F. Morgan. Pensacola, Fla. : Perdido Bay Press, 1985. xii, 161 p., [40] p. of plates : ill., maps 24 cm. Series title: Southern history and genealogy series v. 2.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Morgan, James F. and Charles P. Wilson. "New Orleans and Confederate Louisiana's Monetary Policy: The Confederate Microcosm." Gulf Coast Historical Review 1989 4(2): 73-84.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Pecquet, Gary M. "The Change Shortage and the Private and Public Provision of Small Currency Denominations in the Trans-Mississippi States 1861-1865." Southern Studies 1986 25(1): 102-110.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Pecquet, Gary M. "Money in the Trans-Mississippi Confederacy and the Currency Reform Act of 1864." Explorations in Economic History 1987 24(2): 218-243.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Pecquet, Gary M. "Public Finance in Confederate Louisiana." Louisiana History 1988 29(3): 253-297.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Pecquet, Gary M. "State Finance in Arkansas, 1860-1865." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 1989 48(1): 65-72.
[Long Display] [Abstract]

Reinfeld, Fred, 1910-1964. The story of Civil War money. New York : Sterling Pub. Co., [1959] 93 p. : ill. 26 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]

Reinfeld, Fred, 1910-1964. The story of Civil War Money. New York : Sterling Pub. Co., [1959] 93 p. : ill. 26 cm.
[Long Display] [Abstract] [Marc Record]


Subject Index: English Civil War - History

Comprising some of the most diverse materials in the collection, our Civil War-related holdings include not only books but also recruiting posters, photographs, comic valentines, song sheets, playbills, pictorial envelopes, lottery tickets, paper money, leaflets, handbills, fans, humorous moveable “transformation” cards, ribbons, buttons, tickets, trade cards, and much more. Much of what we own came to us from the collection of John McAllister, Jr. and his son, John A. McAllister, nineteenth-century Philadelphia antiquarians. Items in the McAllister collection alone number some 50,000 pieces and include, in addition to printed material, graphics and manuscripts. With grant funding, the McAllister Collection is being conserved and cataloged to improve preservation and access.

The recruiting posters are the gems of the McAllister Collection. Often oversized (up to 8 feet tall) and printed on multiple sheets, they were printed using eye-catching colors, large ornamental type, and dynamic wood engravings. They document changing recruiting strategies for Union troops during the War (for example, increasing the monetary incentive for volunteering when patriotic resolve began to wane) and demonstrate cutting-edge printing techniques.

Other pieces of ephemera include those related to Union money-making activities, such as the Sanitary Fairs organized by women who wanted to help the cause. Circulars asking for donations of goods and services, tickets to fund-raising balls and fairs, advertising posters, and even souvenir fans from the events are included in the collection. An extensive group of Civil War stationery –envelopes embellished with political cartoons and allegorical figures and pieces of letterhead illustrating camp scenes – evince the massive output by printers for whom soldiers were their steady consumers.

More durable pamphlets and books related to the War include innumerable political tracts, treatises on surgery in the field, fictional tales of intrigue, and camp songsters. They give voice to both soldiers in the field and politicians, such as Lincoln, making the crucial decisions of the day.


Subject Index: English Civil War - History

Trial by Jury: &ldquoInherent and Invaluable&rdquo

In the United States, there are two places where every American is supposed to be equal&mdashat the ballot box and in the courtroom. Those are powerful rights that should be championed by every one of us regardless political affiliation because they are the very definition of a free people. Indeed, John Adams wrote, &ldquoRepresentative government and trial by jury are the heart and lungs of liberty. Without them we have no other fortification against being ridden like horses, fleeces like sheep, worked like cattle, and fed and clothed like swine and hounds.&rdquo

Unfortunately, equality at the ballot box is now in question. While we still adhere to &ldquoone person, one vote,&rdquo our political process is teeming with money. It is now cost prohibitive for many people to run for office, and candidates receive big money contributions. The most recent election also showed the growing influence of million-dollar, independent ad campaigns on voters. After being elected to office, lawmakers come under the influence of special interest lobbyists.

That leaves our courtrooms and trial by jury. Thomas Jefferson wrote, &ldquoI consider [trial by jury] as the only anchor yet imagined by man, by which a government can be held to the principles of its constitution.&rdquo It is a sentiment echoed by former U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist. &ldquoThe right to trial by jury in civil cases at common law is fundamental to our history and jurisprudence. A right so fundamental and sacred to the citizens should be jealously guarded.&rdquo


The Trial That Sparked the American Revolution
Most Americans don&rsquot realize that it was a trial that first ignited the fire that became the American Revolution. John Peter Zenger was the publisher of the New York Weekly Journal. In 1734, the newspaper published a column that criticized Royal Governor William Crosby for removing Justice Lewis Morris from the bench. Outraged, Crosby had Zenger arrested and imprisoned for seditious libel. In 1735, Zenger was tried before a jury of his peers. The jury found Zenger not guilty because he had printed the truth.

Zenger&rsquos case guaranteed freedom of the press&mdashnewspaper editors and publishers could no longer be found guilty for libel when they printed the truth. It is a landmark decision that is not only being studied in law schools, but also journalism schools to this very day. As a result of the decision, the colonial newspapers were free to openly criticize the British crown, and it was in the press that the revolutionary fervor grew in the decades following the Zenger decision. As Gouvernor Morris, who helped write the U. S. Constitution, noted, &ldquoThe trial of Zenger in 1735 was the germ of American Freedom, the morning star of liberty that subsequently revolutionized America.&rdquo


The Origins of Trial by Jury
But why, in a society as oppressive as Crosby&rsquos New York, did Zenger have an opportunity to present his case in court and be tried by a jury of his peers?

That answer goes back another 500 years to the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 by King John I. The Magna Carta is the &ldquogreat charter&rdquo that protected the civil liberties of English subjects and guaranteed the two great pillars of democratic society&mdashrepresentative government and trial by jury. Chapter 39 of the document reads, &ldquoNo mal shall be taken, outlawed, banished, or in any way destroyed, nor will we proceed against or prosecute him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers and by the law of the land.&rdquo

There had been earlier forms of trial by jury for centuries. Beginning around 2000 B. C., ancient Egyptians adjudicated matters through Kenbet, which was comprised of eight jurors&mdashfour from each side of the Nile. In the 6th century B. C., Dikastes, in which designated citizens tried and passed judgment on questions of law, became the norm in Greece. The Greek system evolved into Rome&rsquos Judices by the 4th century B. C. It was this system that was most likely the first form of juries in England, with it arriving on British shores with the Roman Conquest. By the late 800s, under the leadership of Alfred the Great, trial by a jury of one&rsquos peers became the norm throughout England.

William Blackstone, the great historian of English common law, considered the Frankish Inquest, developed in 829 A. D. as the start of the modern jury system. Created by Louis the Pious, the son of Charlemagne, it was a &ldquojury of administrative inquiry.&rdquo Through it, royal rights were determined by a jury of 12 of the &ldquobest and most credible men&rdquo in the locality. The Frankish Inquest arrived in Britain with William the Conqueror in 1066. Less than two centuries later, the Magna Carta affirmed that trial by jury would be the standard for all subjects of the English&mdashand later British&mdashcrown.


The British Bill of Rights
Unfortunately for the British people, their right to trial by jury began to break down in the 16th century. King Henry VIII declared himself supreme ruler of Great Britain, and part of his strategy to retain that ultimate power was the suppression and intimidation of the courts. He also used the Star Chamber, which had evolved from the King&rsquos Council during his father&rsquos reign. Initially instituted as a special court for those too powerful to be held accountable in the country&rsquos common civil and criminal courts, the Star Chamber became a political weapon to bring actions against those who challenged the crown. Its court sessions were held in secret, with no indictments, no juries, no witnesses and no appeals. In a 1975 decision, the U. S. Supreme Court wrote, &ldquoThe Star Chamber has, for centuries, symbolized disregard of basic individual rights.&rdquo

The Star Chamber continued under the Stuart kings into the 17th century. Although the English Civil War overthrew the monarchy in 1649, the abuses of both the Star Chamber and other limits on trial by jury continued under Oliver Cromwell. Following Cromwell&rsquos death in 1658, British Parliament restored the monarchy and Charles II was crowned king in 1660. The truce between the crown and Parliament was short lived, however, as Charles II began to suspend laws passed Parliament and continued to infringe on the liberties guaranteed to the British people in the Magna Carta. Charles II even went so far as to repeatedly dissolve Parliament when it convened.

When Charles II died in 1685 without producing an heir, the Catholic James II ascended to the throne. After his wife gave birth to a son, Protestant members of Parliament feared that Great Britain would again become a Catholic monarchy beholden to Rome. In the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the Protestants overthrew James II with the aid of the William of Orange, of the Netherlands, who was married to James II&rsquos Protestant daughter, Mary.

Parliament offered the British throne to William and Mary to rule jointly, but after nearly 200 years of abuses, the British people wanted the assurance that the rights guaranteed to them in the Magna Carta&mdashincluding the right to trial by jury&mdashwould not be taken from them again. Before William and Mary could be crowned, they had to sign the British Bill of Rights. It was signed in 1689. William Blackstone later wrote, &ldquoThe trial by jury ever has been, and I trust ever will be, looked upon as the glory of English law.

In the early 1600s, British subjects, whose rights were threatened at home, began sailing for America. The rights that they had been guaranteed in the Magna Carta, including trial by jury, were reasserted in the colonial charters. The right to trial by jury was included in the First Charter of Virginia, which was drafted in Great Britain in 1606&mdashand that right was guaranteed in all subsequent colonial charters.


The Period of Revolution
In the wake of John Peter Zenger&rsquos trial, the right to trial by jury came under attack in the colonies. The British rulers suppressed the right in order to limit challenges against British authority and quell calls for American independence. Almost immediately, efforts to limit trial by jury became a focal point for revolutionaries.

In 1751, the South Carolina General Assembly declared that &ldquoany person who shall endeavor to deprive us of so glorious a privilege of trial by jury&rdquo was an enemy to the people of the colony. The Stamp Act Congress of 1765 wrote that &ldquotrial by jury is the inherent and invaluable right of every British subject in these colonies.&rdquo John Jay, who would later become the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court, wrote, &ldquoKnow then that we claim all the benefits secured to the subject by the English Constitution, and particularly the inestimable right of trial by jury.&rdquo

The fervor continued into 1774, when the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1774. That Congress resolved that the American colonists were entitled to &ldquothe great and estimable privilege of being tried by a jury of their peers in the vicinage.&rdquo The following year, efforts by the British rulers to deprive the colonials of their right to jury trials was cited as one of the causes of the American Revolution. In the Declaration of Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, the Continental Congress cited the denial of &ldquothe accustomed and inestimable privilege of trial by jury, in cases of both life and property.&rdquo In 1776, in our Declaration of Independence, the charges against Britain&rsquos King George III included, &ldquoDepriving us in many cases, the benefits of trial by jury.&rdquo With that document, America&rsquos founding fathers made trial by jury a right for which they pledged &ldquo[their] lives, [their] fortunes, and [their] sacred honor.&rdquo

Following the Declaration of Independence, each colony had to write a new state constitution. These constitutions were based on the principles and rights outlined in the Magna Carta and the British Bill of Rights, as well as interpretation of British common law by men such as Thomas Coke and William Blackstone.

In his June 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights, George Mason wrote that &ldquoThe ancient trial by jury is preferable to any other and ought to be held sacred.&rdquo He preserved that right in the Virginia constitution that he wrote later that year. The New York constitution states, &ldquoAnd this convention doth further ordain, determine and declare, in name and by authority of the people of this state, that trial by jury, in all cases in which it hath heretofore been used in the colony of New York, shall be established and remain inviolate forever.&rdquo Similar language was found in all the other state constitutions as was as the charter for the Northwest Territories.


The Constitution Controversy
After our victory in the American Revolution, the first United States&rsquo constitution, the Articles of Confederation, was deemed inadequate for the new nation. A convention was called in Philadelphia in 1787 to draft a new one.

After months of heated debate, a draft was presented to the convention on September 12, 1787. The draft allowed trial by jury in criminal cases, but not in civil cases. Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts cited the omission. &ldquoThe jury is adapted to the investigation of truth beyond any other system the world can produce. A tribunal without juries would be a Star Chamber in civil cases.&rdquo Gerry&rsquos position was affirmed and seconded by George Mason, who argued that the document needed a Bill of Rights to guarantee both freedom of the press and trial by jury.

Delegates attempted to amend the constitution to include jury trials in civil cases. Opponents to the change argued that it was unnecessary since the right was preserved in the state constitutions. The amendment failed on September 15. The new United States Constitution was signed on September 17, but it still had to be ratified by the states. Many southern states refused to ratify the document because it did not include a Bill of Rights.

As the states debated ratification, the political leaders split into two groups&mdashthe Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. The Federalists, led by people like Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, championed a strong, centralized government. The Anti-Federalists, whose members included George Mason, Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams, feared that a strong national government would overpower the rights of the states and citizens and advocated for a Bill of Rights. Despite their philosophical differences on many issues, there was one area in which they agreed: the right to trial by jury.

Alexander Hamilton wrote, &ldquoThe friends and adversaries of the plan of the Convention, if they agree in nothing else, concur at least in the value they set upon trial by jury of if there is any difference between them it consists in this: the former regard it as a valuable safeguard to liberty the latter represent it as the very palladium of free government.&rdquo

Hamilton&rsquos sentiment was echoed by other Federalists like Pennsylvanian John Dickinson. &ldquoTrial by jury is the cornerstone of our liberty. It is our birthright who is in opposition to the genius of America shall dare to attempt its subversion?&rdquo James Madison wrote, &ldquoTrial by jury is essential to secure the liberty of the people as any one of the pre-existent rights of nature.&rdquo

The Anti-Federalists, likewise, supported Hamilton&rsquos position on trial by jury. Patrick Henry wrote, &ldquoTrial by jury is the best appendage of freedom. I hope that we shall never be induced to part with that excellent mode of trial.&rdquo Fellow Virginian Richard Henry Lee stated, &ldquoThe right to trial by jury is a fundamental right of free and enlightened people and an essential part of a free government.&rdquo


The Bill of Rights
Led by Anti-Federalists, many states&mdashincluding Massachusetts and Virginia&mdashrefused to ratify the United States Constitution unless the document was amended to include a Bill of Rights. Although five states had ratified the document, Massachusetts refused to do so until John Adams and John Hancock brokered the Massachusetts Compromise. The compromise allowed the state delegates to ratify the document with the provision the state would lobby the U. S. Congress to amend the document should enough states ratify it and it became law.

Many other states debating the issue followed the Massachusetts Compromise, and the United States Constitution went into effect on March 4, 1789. Once the First Congress was seated at Federal Hall in New York City, its members agreed that a Bill of Rights was needed. James Madison, who headed the Virginia delegation, drafted the legislation. Based largely on George Mason&rsquos Virginia Bill of Rights from 1776, it outlined the first ten amendments to the Constitution and was passed by Congress on September 25, 1789. On December 15, 1791, Virginia became the eleventh state to ratify the constitutional amendments, and the Bill of Rights became law.

In our Bill of Rights, the 1st Amendment guarantees, among other liberties, freedom of the press&mdashthe spark that had ignited the American Revolution with the trial of John Peter Zenger. The 6th Amendment outlines the rights to a speedy, impartial, jury trial in criminal cases&mdasha right which had ensured that Zenger had a fair trial in front of a jury of his peers. The 7th Amendment preserves the right to jury trial in civil cases and reads:
&ldquoIn suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, according to the rules of common law.&rdquo


Conclusion
In 1835 Alexis de Tocqueville, the great 19th century political scientist and author of Democracy in America, wrote, &ldquoThe civil just is the most effective form of sovereignty of the people. It defies the aggressions of time and man. During the 16th century, the civil jury did in reality save the liberties of England.&rdquo

It should be the responsibility of every American to protect his or her 7th Amendment right to trial by jury. As U. S. Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black wrote in 1939, &ldquoIt is essential that the right of trial by jury be scrupulously safeguarded as the bulwark of civil liberty. Our duty to preserve the 7th Amendment is a matter of high constitutional importance.&rdquo


Civil War Records: Basic Research Sources

Over 2.8 million men (and a few hundred women) served in the Union and Confederate armies during the Civil War. This page briefly describes resources for researching the military service of individual Civil War soldiers in "Volunteer" Army units.

Related Subjects:

Regular Army: For information about researching the military service of persons in the Regular Army, see Anne Bruner Eales and Robert M. Kvasnicka, Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives of the United States, 3rd edition (Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 2000), Chapter 4, Records of the Regular Army.

Union Navy or Confederate Navy: For information about researching the service of persons in the Union Navy or Confederate Navy, see Lee D. Bacon, "Civil War and Later Navy Personnel Records at the National Archives, 1861-1924," Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer 1995). An index to service by African-American sailors is available online at the Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System website.

Union Records

For Union army soldiers, there are three major records in the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) that provide information on military service: (1) compiled military service record (CMSR) (2) pension application file and (3) records reproduced in microfilm publication M594, Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Volunteer Union Organizations (225 rolls).

Confederate Records

For Confederate army soldiers, there are two major records in NARA that provide information on military service: (1) compiled military service record (CMSR) and (2) records reproduced in microfilm publication M861, Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Confederate Organizations (74 rolls). Records relating to Confederate soldiers are typically less complete than those relating to Union soldiers because many Confederate records did not survive the war.

NARA does not have pension files for Confederate soldiers. Pensions were granted to Confederate veterans and their widows and minor children by the States of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia these records are in the state archives or equivalent agency.

Publications

Researchers should visit public libraries to find books and periodicals about Civil War battles, strategies, uniforms, and the political and social context of the times. Useful publications include:

    . Reprint, Gettysburg, PA: National Historical Society, 1971-72. Includes battle reports and correspondence of Union and Confederate regiments.
    . Reprint, Gettysburg, PA: National Historical Society, 1971.
    . Reprint, Dayton, OH: National Historical Society, 1979. Lists battles and campaigns for Union regiments and also gives the composition of corps and armies, i.e., such as the Army of the Potomac. Take note, however, that regimental battle lists cannot be considered proof that any particular soldier fought in various battles since different companies in the regiment may have had different assignments, or an individual soldier may have been absent due to sickness, desertion, temporary assignment to other duties, or other causes.
  • Dornbusch, Charles E. Military Bibliography of the Civil War. 4 vols. New York: New York Public Library, 1971-87. A guide to published Union and Confederate unit histories.
  • Hewett, Janet B., et al. Supplement to the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 51 vols. Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Co., 1994-97.
  • Sifakis, Stewart. Compendium of the Confederate Armies. 11 vols. New York: Facts on File, 1992-97.
  • Long, Everette B. Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861-1865. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971.
  • Randall, James, and David Donald. Civil War and Reconstruction. Boston: Heath, 1961.
  • Catton, Bruce. The Centennial History of the Civil War. 3 vols. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961-65.
  • Foote, Shelby. The Civil War. 3 vols. New York, NY: Random House, 1958-74.
  • Wiley, Bell I. The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971.
  • Wiley, Bell I. The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1978.
  • Basler, Roy P., ed. Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Periodicals such as Civil War History, Civil War Times Illustrated, and Blue and Gray are also informative. These magazines are often found in public libraries.

Discussion of the Basic Records

Compiled Military Service Records (CMSR)

Each volunteer soldier has one Compiled Military Service Record (CMSR) for each regiment in which he served. An index is available online at the Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System website or on microfilm at selected NARA facilities and large genealogical research libraries. The CMSR contains basic information about the soldier's military career, and it is the first source the researcher should consult. The CMSR is an envelope (a jacket) containing one or more cards. These cards typically indicate that the soldier was present or absent during a certain period of time. Other cards may indicate the date of enlistment and discharge, amount of bounty paid him, and other information such as wounds received during battle or hospitalization for injury or illness. The soldier's place of birth may be indicated if foreign born, only the country of birth is stated. The CMSR may contain an internal jacket for so-called "personal papers" of various kinds. These may include a copy of the soldier's enlistment paper, papers relating to his capture and release as a prisoner of war, or a statement that he had no personal property with him when he died. Note, however, that the CMSR rarely indicates battles in which a soldier fought that information must be derived from other sources.

A CMSR is as complete as the surviving records of an individual soldier or his unit. The War Department compiled the CMSRs from the original muster rolls and other records some years after the war to permit more rapid and efficient checking of military and medical records in connection with claims for pensions and other veterans' benefits. The abstracts were so carefully prepared that it is rarely necessary to consult the original muster rolls and other records from which they were made. When the War Department created CMSRs at the turn of the century, information from company muster rolls, regimental returns, descriptive books, hospital rolls, and other records was copied verbatim onto cards. A separate card was prepared each time an individual name appeared on a document. These cards were all numbered on the back, and these numbers were entered onto the outside jacket containing the cards. The numbers on the jacket correspond with the numbers on the cards within the jacket. These numbers were used by the War Department only for control purposes while the CMSRs were being created the numbers do not refer to other records regarding a veteran nor are they useful for reference purposes today.

Pension Records

Most Union army soldiers or their widows or minor children later applied for a pension. In some cases, a dependent father or mother applied for a pension. The pension files are indexed by NARA microfilm publication T288, General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934 (544 rolls) which is also available online at Ancestry.com (for a fee).

The pension file will often contain more information about what the soldier did during the war than the CMSR, and it may contain much medical information if he lived for a number of years afterwards. For example, in his pension file, Seth Combs of Company C, 2d Ohio Cavalry, reported: ". my left eye was injured while tearing down a building. and in pulling off a board a splinter or piece struck my eye and injured it badly. it was hurt while in the Shenandoah Valley near Winchester, Va. about Christmas 1864--a comrade who stood by me name Jim Beach is dead." In another affidavit, Seth said he "also got the Rheumatism while on duty as a dispatch bearer on detached duty."

To obtain a widow's pension, the widow had to provide proof of marriage, such as a copy of the record kept by county officials, or by affidavit from the minister or some other person. Applications on behalf of the soldier's minor children had to supply both proof of the soldier's marriage and proof of the children's birth.

Record of Events

Sometimes, additional information about a soldier's war activities can be deduced from the compilations of the activities of each company known colloquially as the "record of events." These records, which were compiled from information on the original muster rolls and returns, are uneven in content some give day-by-day narratives of a company's activities, while others simply note that the company was stationed at a certain place during the reporting period (usually 2-months). Although they rarely name individual soldiers, the descriptions of the activities and movements of the company can be used, in conjunction with the soldier's CMSR and pension file, to determine where the soldier was and what he was doing. As noted above, records of Union regiments are reproduced in microfilm publication M594, Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Volunteer Union Organizations (225 rolls). , and records of Confederate regiments are reproduced in microfilm publication M861, Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Confederate Organizations (74 rolls). These records are arranged by state, thereunder by regiment, and thereunder by company. These records are being published as Janet B. Hewett, et al., Supplement to the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 51 vols. (Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Co., 1994-97).

Part 2: Compiling a Soldier's History

This section shows how the information from the (1) CMSR, (2) pension file, and (3) "record of events" can be combined to more fully describe an average soldier's war experiences. The reconstructed histories of two brothers who served the Union in the 106th New York Infantry--William P. Western and Frederick Weston [sic]--are presented as examples.

Frederick Weston, Company G, 106th N.Y. Infantry

According to his CMSR, Frederick Weston [sic] enlisted August 4, 1862, at Stockholm, New York. He was a 21-year-old farmer born at Stockholm, and was 5 feet 10 inches tall and had grey eyes and black hair. His company mustered in on August 27, 1862, at Ogdensburg, New York. Frederick was listed as "present" on company muster rolls from his enrollment through June 1863. He died of typhoid fever at North Mountain, Virginia, June 3, 1863.

There is no pension file relating to Frederick because he was not married and did not have any minor children or aged parents dependant upon him for support.

The "record of events" cards in microfilm publication M594, Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Volunteer Union Organizations, roll 130, provide much detail about his service. The company was raised by Captain Cogswell of Madrid, New York, by authority of Adjutant General Hillhouse under the President's call for 600,000 volunteers. They were mustered in August 27, 1862, by Lt. Caustin, 19th U.S. Infantry, who paid them the U.S. Bounty of $25 they were also paid the $50 State bounty. This company left Camp Wheeler, Ogdensburg, New York, August 28, 1862 arrived at Camp Jessie, New Creek, Virginia, September 2, 1862 left Camp Jessie, December 27, 1862 and arrived at Martinsburg, Virginia, December 28, 1862.

The company spent over 2 months at Martinsburg before marching with the rest of the regiment to North Mountain, Virginia, on March 6, 1863. They remained there until April 25, 1863, when they were ordered to take "the cars for Grafton one hundred and eighty miles west on the Baltimore & Ohio R. Road," which they reached on April 26. From Grafton, Virginia, they went by railroad to Webster, Virginia, and from there marched to Philippi, Virginia. "Meeting no enemy" the regiment countermarched back to Webster, arriving there on April 27. Learning that Grafton was in danger of a rebel attack, they marched back to Grafton the same day by way of Pruntytown. They remained at Grafton until May 18, when the company returned to North Mountain, at which it stayed until June 13, 1863. By then, of course, Frederick Weston had died.

William P. Western, Company D, 106th N.Y. Infantry

According to his CMSR, William enlisted July 29, 1862, at DeKalb, New York. He was a 26-year-old farmer born in Stockholm, New York, and was 5 feet 8 inches tall and had gray eyes and brown hair. His company mustered in August 27, 1862, at Ogdensburg, New York. Although William was listed as "present" on company muster rolls from his enrollment through June 1864, he was taken prisoner and paroled at Fairmont, Virginia, April 29, 1863. He went from there to Camp Parole, Annapolis, Maryland, and did not return to regular duty until October 31, 1863. He became sick from "chronic diarrhoea" and "remittant fever," and on July 3, 1864, he was sent to the U.S. Army Hospital, 6th Army Corps, at City Point, Virginia. Subsequently, he was sent to Finley General Hospital, Washington, D.C. William's CMSR indicates some confusion as to whether he deserted while on furlough from the hospital, or whether he died at Richville, New York, November 23, 1864, or at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 1, 1864. During his military service, he received $95 in clothing, $27 in advanced bounty, and all his pay through August 31, 1864. He was to have been charged $1.27 for a "painted blanket" and $23.96 for transportation.

The pension application submitted by William's widow eliminates the confusion about his death. According to affidavits, Finley General Hospital gave William a furlough on September 14, 1864, permitting him to return to St. Lawrence County, New York, for 1 month. On his way home, William visited Dr. Carroll C. Bates at Potsdam, New York. Dr. Bates visited William at his father's house on September 29 and on October 3 and 5. The doctor planned to visit William again on October 7, but did not because William had died. Albert Dewey and Joseph N. Griswold laid out William's remains for burial. The pension file also includes the dates of William's marriage to Ulisa Daniels, her subsequent marriage to Patrick Curn, and the birth of William's daughter, Rosena.

The "record of events" cards in M594, roll 130, provide additional detail about William's service. Company D's movements from enlistment to April 27, 1863, were identical to those for Company G, except that they were reported to have had a skirmish with the enemy at Philippi on April 26. They returned to Grafton on April 27. On April 28, Companies D and F were ordered to march to Fairmont, Virginia, to guard a railroad bridge over the Monongahela River. The next day they were attacked by Confederates whom they fought from 1:30 a.m. until noon, when "very suddenly the command was surrendered and immediately paroled." Their casualties were one killed and one wounded.

The men who were captured were "out of action" for 6 months until they were formally exchanged the remainder of the company continued fighting the war. Eventually, William and the other men returned to duty:

Company D saw little activity during its winter quarters at Brandy Station, Virginia. On February 6, 1864, it received orders to reconnaissance to the Rapidan River, but then returned to camp the next day and did "nothing but heavy picket duty since." On March 28, 1864, the Regiment was transferred from the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 3d Army Corps to the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 6th Army Corps. Company D remained in Camp near Brandy Station until May 4, 1864, "and have since participated in all the movements and Battles of said Division and Corps." The company and the regiment "participated in the engagements on the left of Petersburg" and on July 6 left for Maryland and took part in the engagement at Monocacy, July 9, 1864. By then, of course, William had already been sent to the hospital on July 3, never to return to duty again.

As illustrated by these examples, one soldier's experience may be different from others in the same regiment. William Western was absent from April 29 to October 31, 1863, while his brother Frederick Weston [sic] remained in the thick of military activity from April 29 until he died July 3, 1863. The researcher can build a detailed description of a soldier's contribution to the Union or Confederate cause using the soldier's military service and pension records, and the "record of events" for the soldier's company, regiment, and field and staff officers.

A Word of Caution!

Do not assume that a particular individual participated in a battle if (1) his unit was at the battle and (2) the person appears likely to have been with that unit. In the War Department's view, and from a strict adherence to objective information in existing evidence, such an assumption cannot ordinarily be made. Thus, the descriptions of William P. Western's and Frederick Weston's military careers are crafted both upon evidence and upon assumptions, with no guarantee that the assumptions are correct.

No roll call was recorded just before a unit entered battle. As noted above, there are a variety of reasons why a particular individual may not have been present at that time: different companies in the regiment may have had different assignments, or an individual soldier may have been absent due to sickness, desertion, temporary assignment to other duties, or other causes. Muster rolls--which were ordinarily compiled to cover a 2-month period--are generally accurate for the day on which the roll was filled out, but often not for all of the period covered. If a person left the ranks some time during those 2 months and then returned, that absence may not show on the roll. This is especially true for Confederate rolls.

Some records provide very strong evidence that someone was at a battle, but a muster roll with the word "present" is not among them. The strong evidence includes:

  • Postcards or testimony, found in pension files, wherein the veteran names the battles in which he participated, in response to a specific question from the Pension Office.
  • Some Union CMSRs, notably for Colorado, that specifically record presence at a battle. Such information was recorded during the war--although how this was done is unknown.
  • Some Confederate CMSRs, notably for Louisiana, Mississippi, and some Alabama units, that include a list of battles at which the soldier was present. These lists were drawn up during the war, but the procedure by which this was done is unknown.
  • Mention of a person's presence at a battle in the Official Records.
  • Records showing death, wounds, or capture at battle.
  • Mention of participation in battle in a regimental history.
  • Mention of an individual in the "record of events."
  • Other records, such as a receipt for a horse killed in action.

It is very tempting to list persons present at a battle, but the available evidence will ordinarily not make that possible. Nevertheless, attempts have been made. A good example is the Pennsylvania monument at Gettysburg, PA. There, the State wished to record all Pennsylvanians present at the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863. The State decided to use the May-June 1863 muster rolls as evidence, since they list men present on June 30. This is a fortuitous date. Since the battle began the next day and the men were under order on pain of death to remain with their assigned units, one can reasonably assume that most men recorded as present June 30 were at the battle. Nevertheless, the U.S. War Department did not recognize that assumption. In fact, controversies over the inclusion of specific names on the Pennsylvania memorial continue to this day.

Part 3: Where to Find These Records

Washington, DC

You may do research in Civil War military service and pension files in person at the National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001. Begin your research in the Microfilm Reading Room. Staff is available there to answer your questions.

All microfilmed records may be examined during regular research room hours no prior arrangement is necessary.

Requests for records that have not been microfilmed, such as the pension files and most Union CMSRs, must be submitted on appropriate forms between 8:45 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. Monday-Friday. The request forms and the microfilmed indexes are all available in the Microfilm Reading Room. Pension files and other original records are not "pulled" from the stacks after 3:30 p.m. or on Saturday, but can be viewed during all regular research hours if the pull request was submitted during the weekday hours noted in the previous sentence.

Please be aware that these are very popular records. NARA strives to make the records readily available to all researchers on an equal basis. In order to provide timely, equal access, NARA limits the number of original records which you may request for any scheduled records pull. The limit is four original files for each researcher for each pull during a business day up to 24 files in a given day. Because of the number of requests for original records, we are unable to provide advance service on these records. Please do not ask us to verify if we have a file in advance of your arrival or ask us for expedited service.

Researchers coming from a distance may wish to call in advance of their visit (1) to verify research room hours and (2) to have any additional questions answered. The Consultant's Office can be reached at 202-501-5400.

Regional Facilities

Some National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) regional facilities have selected microfilmed Civil War compiled military service records and other microfilmed military records call to verify their availability.

Requesting Records by Mail or Online

Military Service Records: Paper copies of Civil War military service records can be requested by mail using an NATF Form 86 for each soldier (Volunteer Army or Regular Army). You can obtain the NATF Form 86 by providing your name and mailing address to www.archives.gov/contact/inquire-form.html. Be sure to specify the correct form number and the number of forms you need.

Pension Records: Paper copies of Civil War pension records can be requested online or requested by mail using an NATF Form 85 for each soldier (Volunteer Army or Regular Army, Union Navy or Marine Corps). You can obtain the NATF Form 85 by providing your name and mailing address to www.archives.gov/contact/inquire-form.html. Be sure to specify the correct form number and the number of forms you need.

You can also obtain the NATF Forms 85 and Form 86 by writing to:
National Archives and Records Administration,
Attn: NWCTB
700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW,
Washington, DC 20408-0001.

Important! There are no compiled service records for Navy or Marine Corps personnel. Do not used NATF Form 86. Instead, contact Old Military and Civil Records (NWCTB), National Archives and Records Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001.

Part 4: Civil War Photographs and Maps

NARA's holdings include Civil War photographs taken by Matthew Brady, Alexander Gardner, and George N. Barnard, as well as Civil War maps, plans, engineering drawings, diagrams, blueprints, and sketches of forts. These can be accessed online through the National Archives Catalog. Some of the photos have been compiled into a Pictures of the Civil War leaflet, also available online.

Civil War photographs can also be found in these and other institutions:

Part 5: Other Records

Part 6: Grand Army of the Republic

The Grand Army of the Republic (G.A.R.) was a patriotic society, founded in 1866, composed of Civil War veterans who had honorably served in the Union Army. This society was dissolved in 1956, with the death of its last surviving member. Since the G.A.R. was a private veterans organization, not a part of the Federal Government, its archives are not among the records in NARA custody.

Selected facilities with G.A.R. materials include:

And, for online research links, see the Grand Army of the Republic and Related Research Links page maintained by the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War.

Part 7: For More Information

For information about military service and other Civil War-era military records available as National Archives microfilm publications, consult:

Listings for the Record Groups (RGs) listed below in Microfilm Resources for Research: A Comprehensive Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1996. Available online or for purchase.

  • RG 15, Records of the Veterans Administration
  • RG 92, Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General
  • RG 94, Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1780s-1917
  • RG 109, War Department Collection of Confederate Records
  • RG 110, Records of the Provost Marshal General's Bureau (Civil War)
  • RG 249, Records of the Commissary General of Prisoners

Military Service Records: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1985. Available online or for purchase.

For detailed information about other records relating to the Civil War, consult:

  • Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration. Revised 1985. Available for purchase.
  • Munden, Kenneth W., and Henry Putney Beers. The Union: A Guide to Federal Archives Relating to the Civil War. National Archives and Records Administration. 1962. Reprint, 1986. Available for purchase.
  • Beers, Henry Putney. The Confederacy: A Guide to the Archives of the Confederate States of America. National Archives and Records Administration. 1968. Reprint, 1986. Available for purchase.
  • A Guide to Civil War Maps in the National Archives. National Archives and Records Administration. 1964. Reprint, 1986. Available for purchase.
  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. 3 vols. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration. 1995. Available online or for purchase.

Many articles about the Civil War era and its records have been published in Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives, which is available for $16 for an annual subscription (4 issues per year). Back issues of Prologue are frequently available on microfilm at public and university libraries. The following is a chronological list of articles about the Civil War published from 1988 through 2003:


Subject Index: English Civil War - History

As of December 31, 2014, I retired from full-time teaching in Humboldt State University's Department of History. While this website will remain online, it is no longer maintained.

Please note that a Czech translation of this website is available at http://www.bildelarexpert.se/blogg/2016/11/10/obcanska-valka-cile-strategie-dusledky/ . Many thanks to Barbora Lebedová for this translation!

History 110 - Dr. Gayle Olson-Raymer

The Civil War: Goals, Strategies, and Consequences

Goal #1: To discuss the goals of the Union and Confederacy on the eve of the Civil War

  • This goal was grounded firmly in the belief that the Constitution protected slavery, but the Union had denied that right. Southerners, therefore, had the right to secede as it was the only way to defend their right to own slaves and their belief in states' rights.
  • Their actions, therefore, were defensive as they had no choice but secession because of the oppressive politics of the North
  • This goal was grounded firmly in the belief that the South had no right to secede from the Union and that secession was treasonous and paramount to an act of war against the Union.
  • Their actions, therefore, were defensive as they had no choice but to call for troops after the firing of Fort Sumter.

As the war continued, the Confederacy's goals remained the same - BUT the Union's goal changed.

  • When it became clear to Lincoln that the North might lose the war and would only win with great difficulty, it became necessary to change the reason for fighting.
  • Freeing the slaves became that reason. Thus, the new Union goal was to retain and reshape the Union - by reuniting the states under a union that no longer tolerated slavery!

Goal #2: To examine the initial political strategies of the Union and Confederacy

Union Goals.The union initially adopted four strategies:

  1. Invade the Confederacy and destroy its will to resist.
  2. Obtain the loyalty of the border states - Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, and in 1863, West Virginia.
    • This was absolutely essential for several reasons:
      • The border states had 2/3 of the South's entire white population, 3/4 of the South's indusrial production, and over half of all its food and fuel.
      • Each state was geographically strategic for the Union - Kentucky held a 500-mile border on the Ohio River Maryland surrounded the Union capital on the north Missouri border the Mississippi River and controlled its routes to the west and Delaware conrolled access to Philadelphia.
      • To fight the war on Southern soil meant marching through hostile border states.
    • And how did Lincoln obtain the loyalty of the border states?
        After Fort Sumter, the northern-tier of the slaveholding states - known as the border states - were still undecided about whether to secede.
    • Eventually, all four decided to stay in the Union, but pro-Confederate sympathizers existed in each state and men fought for the Confederacy in all four.
      • In Maryland, more than the other states, there were many Confederate supporters. Maryland stayed in the Union under duress Lincoln declared martial law, arrested suspected ringleaders of pro-Confederate groups and held them without trial (by suspending the writ of habeas corpus), and detained secessionist leaders. When secessionists moved to block Union activity in the first days of the war, Lincoln stationed Union troops throughout the state and imprisoned most suspected secessionists.
      • In Missouri, an uneasy military rule by Union troops kept them in the Union.
      • Delaware was loyal from the beginning.
      • Kentucky declared neutrality which Lincoln accepted without a fight.
      • A fifth border state was created in mid-1863 due to deep internal divisions in Virginia. Its western counties refused to support the Confederacy because citizens had no slaves or interest in slavery. West Virginia was formally admitted to the Union in June 1863.
  3. Construct and maintain a naval blockade of 3,500 miles of Confederate coastline.
  4. Prevent European powers - especially Great Britain and France - from extending recognition of and giving assistance to the Confederacy. Lincoln knew he was in a bind as long as the Confederacy portrayed their rebellion as one for national self-determination. He also knew that if he could redefine the war as a struggle over slavery, Europe&rsquos sympathies would no longer lay with the Confederacy. However, he was not able to address these concerns until mid-way through the war.

Confederacy Goals . To be victorious, the CSA knew it did not need to invade the North or capture a mile of its territory. Its strategies were fairly simple:

1. Defend Confederate land.
2. Prevent the North from destroying the Confederate army.
3. Break the Union's will to fight.

Goal #3: To examine the resources of the Union and Confederacy at the beginning of the war

  • Total population:
    • Union: 22,300,000 white males = 4,600,000
    • Confederacy: 9,100,000 white males = 1, 100,000
    • Union Advantage: 2.5 to 1 white males = 4.2 to 1
    • Union: $1,730,000,000
    • Confederacy: $156,000,000
    • Union Advantage: 11 to 1
    • Union: 22,000
    • Confederacy: 9,000
    • Union Advantage: 2.4 to 1
    • Union: 13,680,000
    • Confederacy: 650,000
    • Union Advantage: 21 to 1
    • Union: 698,000,000
    • Confederacy: 314,000,000
    • Union Advantage: 2.2 to 1
    • Union: 5,800,000
    • Confederacy: 2,900,000
    • Union Advantage: 2 to 1
    • Union: 43,000
    • Confederacy: 5,344,000
    • Confederacy Advantage: 1 to 124

    • When the War began: The North held the edge on population and economy South had the edge on morale.
      • By the War's end: the North maintained the economic edge. South's population and agricultural base, transportation system, and morale was shattered. Homes, crops, businesses totally destroyed in some areas. Cotton production fell: 4 million bales in 1861 300,000 in 1865.
      • By the War's end : Slaves were freed South had lost one-fourth of all slaves who fled to the Union.
      • By the War's end: About 3.5 million men served on both sides: more than 2 million in the Union. Four of every 5 eligible white southerners served in Confederate Army. In all, almost 10% of the entire US population served in the War.
      • By the War's end : 186,000 blacks had served in the Union army (one-tenth of the entire Union force.) 50% came from Confederate states. Black soldiers had higher mortality rates than whites as they seldom saw combat, and instead, were often relegated to burying bodies, making them more susceptible to disease. Confederates refused to treat black soldiers as POWs, so they were returned to their state as slaves or executed.
      • By the War's end : Both sides abandoned volunteer armies and adopted a draft. The Confederacy enacted first draft or conscription law in American history in April 1862 - all able-bodied white men 18-35 years of age, and by war's end, all between 17 and 50 years old. The only exemptions were owners or overseers of 20 or more slaves. The Union Conscription Act was enacted in March 1863 for all men 20-45 years of age exemptions - paying another man to serve or paying the government $300.
      • By the War's end: Dissent and disloyalty abounded. Confederate disloyal included the men who saw Davis as a despot desertion was widespread - by 1864, the desertion rate was 40 percent. Union dissent increased after passage of the Emancipation Proclamation and the July 1863 NYC Draft Riots desertion was common - by 1863,200 men were deserting a day.
      • By the War's end: Neither Britain nor France could recognize or support the Confederacy after emancipation was declared. Britain developed other cotton markets.
      • By the War's end: Women were widely involved in both the North and South. Over 3,200 nurses and countless other women volunteers worked in Union and Confederate battlefields and hospitals. In the North, women filled about 100,000 new jobs and in the South, women ran the farms and farm machinery.

      Thus, the Civil War was a total war in at least four ways:

      • It mobilized total human and material resources of both sides.
      • It ended in a total victory of one side over the other.
      • It resulted in the total destruction of the loser's political, social, and economic system.
      • It established total control by the winners over the loser's political, social, and economic system.

      Goal #4: To explore the internal factors in the Confederate States of America that led to the Confederacy's defeat


      Throughout the first three years of the war, the Confederates looked as if they might win. What, then, accounted for their loss? Many have pointed to external causations - failure to gain support of European powers, the Union's strategic shift of objectives, etc. However, a clear analysis of the war indicates that internal problems within the Confederate government and military were the primary causations for losing the war. At least seven internal factors led to the southern defeat.

      • Failure of the South to convince the four border states to secede hurt their argument that South must secede to protect their right to own slaves.
      • The states that remained loyal to the Union would have added 45% more white military manpower to the Confederacy and 89% more manufacturing capacity.
      • At least 50,000 of the wealthiest southerners paid for their exemptions - $5,000 or more. Two out of every 3 white persons who fought owned no slaves.
      • Wartime conditions affected the rich and poor differentially. As food shortages became more acute, the rich began to hoard. The poor suffered so severely that food riots broke out in 1863 in four Georgia cities and in North Carolina. In 1864, the price of food soared - a dozen eggs sold for $6 a pound of butter for $25. The rich paid the poor starved.
      • Southern aristocracy felt social class should override military rank. Wealthier soldiers would not obey officers of ordinary social rank. Discipline broke down.
      • The Confederate Congress fiercely opposed taxes on cotton exports and the property of planters (especially slaves) and while wealthy planters had enough capital to fund a relatively large part of the war, most refused to buy Confederate bonds.
      • Thus, the Confederacy was forced to finance about 60% of its war expenses with unbacked paper money which, in turn, caused soaring inflation and counterfeit copies of poorly designed and printed Confederate notes.

      Goal #5: To understand Lincoln's presidency, especially his evolving beliefs about slavery and his role in passing the controversial 13th Amendment

      Lincoln's evolving beliefs about slavery. According to Eric Foner's Pulitzer Prize winning and revisionist book, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (2010):

      Lincoln's role in passing the 13th Amendment. According to Doris Kearns Goodwin's Team of Rivals (2005):

      Lincoln, Gettysburg, and the Gettysburg Address. For three days - July 1 to July 3, 1863 - General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army clashed with the General George Meade's Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg, some 35 miles southwest of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. It proved to be one of the most violent battles of the war of roughly 170,000 Union and Confederate soldiers who fought in the three-day battle, 23,000 Union soldiers (more than one-quarter of the army's effective forces) and 28,000 Confederates soldiers (more than a third of Lee&rsquos army) were killed, wounded or missing. It was a crushing defeat for the Confederacy, and a much-needed victory for the Union.

      In the next few months, David Wills who was a local attorney began efforts to create a national cemetery at Gettysburg. The cemetary's dedication was set for mid-November and Edward Everett - the former president of Harvard College, former U.S. senator and former secretary of state - was asked to be the keynote speaker. On November 2, Wills asked President Lincoln to join him to "set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks." When he received the invitation to make the remarks at Gettysburg, Lincoln saw an opportunity to make a broad statement to the American people on the enormous significance of the war, and he carefully prepared his speech.

      On the morning of November 19, Everett delivered his two-hour speech (from memory) on the Battle of Gettysburg to a crowd of about 15,000 people. Lincoln followed, giving his 272-word speech that lasted less than two minutes. What many historians believe is both the lasting and radical aspect of the speech began with Lincoln's claim that the Declaration of Independence - not the Constitution - was the true expression of the founding fathers' intentions for their new nation when they declared that the nation formed in 1776 was "dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal." Thus, Lincoln's historic address redefined the Civil War as a struggle not just for the Union, but also for the principle of human equality. Historians continue to applaud the importance of the Gettysburg Address in the 21st Century - http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/gettysburg-address.

      The 151st anniversary of Lincoln's delivery of the address will be November 18, 2014. Read the address here at http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm. For extra credit, learn the address and submit it at http://www.learntheaddress.org/#HNc78gzKk5w.

      Goal #6: To understand the consequences of the Civil War

      Until the 20th Century, most historians accepted the following statistics about Civil War human costs:

      Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints

      This online collection provides access to about 7,000 different views and portraits made during the American Civil War (1861-1865) and its immediate aftermath. The images represent the original glass plate negatives made under the supervision of Mathew Brady and Alexander Gardner as well as the photographic prints in the Civil War photographs file in the Prints & Photographs Reading Room. These negatives and prints are sometimes referred to as the Anthony-Taylor-Rand-Ordway-Eaton Collection to indicate the previous owners. The Library purchased the negatives in 1943.

      Search tip for this collection: Try putting in very few search terms, particularly when searching for people (for example, try just the person's last name). For more information, see the Arrangement & Access section.

      Many additional Civil War images are in other collections, including drawings, prints, and photograph albums to name a few.

      Other Civil War Holdings in the Prints & Photographs Division

      Liljenquist Family Collection - Ambrotype, tintype, and other photographs highlight Civil War soldiers and their families, both North and South.

      Andrew J. Russell photographs - Captain Andrew. J. Russell, of the 141st New York Infantry, was the first U.S. Army photographer. He documented railroad maintenance and construction in Washington, D.C. and Virginia and military facilities in and around Washington, D.C., Maryland, and in Virginia. View descriptions and images: LOT 4336, LOT 9209, and LOT 11486.

      Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War - 100 photographs presented chronologically showing the major sites of conflict in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.

      Civil War Drawings in Drawings (Documentary) - More than 1600 sketches by the "Special Artists" who drew for the nation's illustrated newspapers.

      More Civil War pictures -- see the Related Resources page.


      College & Research Libraries News ( C&RL News ) is the official newsmagazine and publication of record of the Association of College & Research Libraries, providing articles on the latest trends and practices affecting academic and research libraries.

      Susan Birkenseer is reference and instruction librarian at Saint Mary’s College of California, email: [email protected]

      The American Civil War: A collection of free online primary sources

      The American Civil War began in 1861, lasted until 1865, and was ruinous by any standard. Within months of President Lincoln’s inauguration, seven southern states began the secession from the Union and declared the Confederate States of America. This split in the fabric of the country began a bitter war, concluding in the death of more than 750,000 soldiers. When the South finally surrendered, the Confederacy collapsed, and slavery was abolished. To understand the conflict, take a look back at the primary documents that highlight decisions of generals, the everyday drudgery of soldiers, and the photographic images of battle.

      Hundreds of websites offer insight into the American Civil War. This guide is not comprehensive, but it highlights a diverse collection of free websites of primary sources for the study of the war. These websites include digitized newspaper archives for both the Union and Confederate sides of the struggle, collections of letters and diaries, digitized photographs, maps, and official records and dispatches from the battlefields.


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      Ten Classroom Strategies for Teaching the Civil War

      For 32 years, I prided my classroom instruction in history in deliberately crafting a dynamic and hands-on classroom environment. In a curriculum that is a mile long and a quarter inch deep, it is difficult to teach the Civil War in a meaningful way. The longer I taught, the more I came to see my role as a teacher as being more of a “guide on the side," being an enthusiastic booster of history by removing myself from the position of didactic “sage on the stage.”

      In this context, your students can be transformed into historians who teach one another. Here is a chance to be creative while addressing state standards.

      With an eye on the calendar and the ten month march of a school year, let me share with you ten successful classroom strategies that my colleagues and I have utilized in teaching the American Civil War.

      I suggest that teachers consider using many of these strategies after they have ensured that whatever relevant standards students must know have been front-loaded as you start your unit on the Civil War. For that reason, I lead off with the time-efficient Civil War foldable activity, which is a great place for you to secure the essential knowledge of the Civil War era matched to your state standards. After employing the foldable strategy and securing that your students have the essential Civil War era knowledge they need, I encourage you to consider trying the other activities with your students.

      All of these classroom strategies are hands-on and can be completed either by individual students or in two member teams. Upon completion of the activity, students should be asked to write a Reflection/Evaluation Journal Entry for assessment purposes and also to provide you with feedback as to how the activity was received and what value the students saw in it.

      Provide students the Civil War Era Foldable Template (available to download below) and walk the students through how to complete it and fold it for use. This activity can be done in the classroom or at home and you can utilize textbooks or various web sites to have students complete the foldable. This is where you make sure that you cover your state standards. You can assess the foldables in class after students complete them and provide to them didactically specific information that you need to ensure is being covered.

      2) Civil War Personalities on Facebook

      Have students pull from a hat (kepi or forage, if possible) with a list of names of Civil War era personalities and have them design a facebook page for that person. Have students use the same formulae that they would have in creating their own personal page. If a student, for example, has Robert E. Lee, then the student would need to list his Friends, like Stonewall Jackson and Jefferson Davis, etc. Students could also, on behalf of their Civil War personality, “Like” ideas, themes, and pop culture elements of the time period.

      Upon completion, students present their Facebook page to the class. For assessment, teachers can grade on a rubric as the student presents. While each student is presenting, classmates should be taking notes or complete a 3-2-1 Notecard Activity (see Number 5) for each page presented. Teachers can always reinforce information that they deem essential based on the state standards.

      Have your students create a breakfast cereal box in memory of a randomly assigned Civil War personality. Students may use an actual, preferably empty, cereal box that they can apply paper to, covering up the current product with the transformed images of the new product they have created. Each cereal box should have a name, something like, “Custer’s Clusters” or “Jeff Davis Munchies.”

      On the sides of the box where one normally finds the nutritional information, students should craft a timeline of key moments in this person’s life. On the back of the box should be some kind of game, like a crossword puzzle, or a word search that relates to the Civil War.

      When the project is complete set the boxes up around the classroom as if they were a museum exhibit and ask students to move around the room and take important notes from each box. Teachers can use this same time to assess the completed boxes.

      4) Civil War Tableaux Vivant

      This is best employed for a group of students. Provide students a list of images (photos or paintings). Again, you can have student groups select from a hat. Student teams should research the painting or photo prior to presentation.

      In the front of the classroom, the teacher should sketch out a frame (strips of cloth hung from the ceiling work well) and inside this frame students should pose. If a particular background is needed then the team of students should create that. Students should dress in costume (within reason to approximate the image). After the tableaux vivant is presented to the class, the student team shares an image of the painting or photo that they are replicating to the class on a projector and at that time provide pertinent information about the artist, photographer, topic, etc.

      5) Civil War In4 Video Presentations

      Assign each student one of the Civil War Trust's In4 videos. Give students a week to watch the video as a homework assignment before they present their video to the class. Each student in the class receives a 3 x 5 note card for each video presented. For each video, they will complete a “3-2-1 Note Card” based on their peers' presentations, noting the following on the card:

      1. Three important things they learned from the presentation.
      2. Two things about which they would like to know more.
      3. One thing from the video that will stick with them.
      4. On the reverse side of the card, students should record the main idea of the presentation.

      Teachers can utilize these cards as an assessment tool or make each student submit a test question based on their in4 video.

      Timing will depend on if the class is in a 90 minute block schedule, every other day format, or the more traditional 45-50 minute each day format. If you have 30 students in a class you will need to manage for each students four minutes for the video, a minute prior to the video for participant introduction, and then a few minutes after each presentation is over for clarification, Q & A, etc. It will probably take a week’s time of instruction to complete one full class of 25-30 students.

      6) Student-Generated in4 Video Presentations

      Teachers can put a different spin on the In4 concept by having students select topics that are not presented by the Civil War Trust’s In4 video collection and make their own videos to share with the class utilizing the same model as the previous In4 strategy.

      7) Civil War Era Bumper Stickers

      Have students imagine what a bumper sticker that might have been seen on the back end of a wagon. Bumper stickers might read: “Richmond or Bust,” “My son is a brevet officer in the Army of Northern Virginia,” etc.

      Have students create their own political cartoons of some aspect of the Civil War. Provide samples of cartoons created by Thomas Nast and others that they can use as models to follow. If students are afraid of their lack of artistic ability it is perfectly fine to draw stick figures. Content of the cartoon should be germane to some aspect of Civil War history.

      9) Reel History vs. Real History: Hollywood and the Civil War

      Using any number of Hollywood films about the Civil War, form the class into teams and assign each team a Hollywood interpretation of the Civil War that they must watch. Students then pick one scene from the film that they can critique as either being historically accurate or inaccurate and share that scene with the class. They must provide evidence of their findings, submitting a source list of five resources from where they got their information.

      You can employ the Historical Heads activity in a number of ways. If you have students reading a memoir account from the Civil War, like Company Aytch, then based on their reading students fill in the Historical Head template with the thoughts, visions, and ideas of the author. Students need to list or preferably draw ten things inside the silhouette, number each image, and on the back write several sentences identifying each image and its importance noting the page number from the book where they got this information.

      This activity could also be used with historical fiction such as The Killer Angels or The Red Badge of Courage.

      Another way to work this activity is to employ, “Dueling Historical Heads.” In this activity the two Historical Head silhouettes face each other for example Abraham Lincoln facing Jefferson Davis or Ulysses S. Grant facing Robert E. Lee. The premise is the same from above but with more of the compare/contrast approach that is emphasized in the new standards.


      Those of us at the Civil War Trust engaged in the mission of education hope that you find this material useful as you teach the defining American event of the 19th century and that you and your students thrive as you do so. Every teacher brings to the classroom something of value to teach and the Civil War Trust would like to issue a call to teachers to share with us so we may share with other educators classroom strategies and activities that have proven successful in your instruction of the Civil War.


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